Guide and template

Full Kairaranga article author guide

Originality and length

The length of a Kairaranga article is between 4,000 and 6,000 words, excluding references. Submissions to Kairaranga should be unpublished and not under consideration by another journal or for a conference proceedings.

Download the Kairaranga template (MS Word format) or refer to the guide below.

Formatting your manuscript prior to submission

Manuscripts are accepted in Te Reo and English, using consistent and acceptable spelling and punctuation. In-text citations and references need to conform to the latest edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA style).

File format

The preferred format is Microsoft Word. If you use any other authoring tool (e.g., Open Office, Page, Google Docs, etc), please download your file as a .doc or .docx to upload to Kairaranga for review.

Compressed file formats such as zip are not acceptable.

Page setup

Page size A4 with margins set to: Top: 3.0 cm, Bottom: 3.0 cm, Left: 2.5 cm, Right: 2.5 cm.

Use of landscape layout is strongly discouraged.


Calibri 20 point bold.

Note: Capitalise the following words in a title:

 1. The first word of the title, even if it is a minor word such as “The” or “A”.
 2. The first word after a colon, em dash, or end punctuation in a heading.

Author names and institutional affiliation

Do not include author names and affiliations in your submission.

If your paper is accepted for publication, you will be asked to provide author names and affiliations for the manuscript.

Please note: please ensure that you register all authors when submitting the paper for review. This allows us to contact you during the review process. The system also automatically uses this data to produce table of contents, etc. As a result, please ensure names are capitalised and spelt correctly, as well as correct and durable email addresses are used.


Abstracts should not exceed 200 words. Use Calibri 11 point, left aligned, indented 1 cm left and right, not italicised. Do not use a heading for the abstract or headings within the abstract.


Identify no more than four keywords that will be used for indexing on online databases and help readers to find your article. Enter your keywords when submitting your article on the system.


Please use no more than three levels of heading and apply consistently.

First level. Calibri 16 point bold, left aligned, sentence case. Do not use numbering for headings.

Second level. Calibri 12 point bold italics, left aligned, sentence case.

Third level. Use of a third level heading is discouraged. A bulleted or numbered list (like this list) is our preferred alternative. If your work really requires a third level heading, use Calibri 11 point italics, left justified, sentence case.

Body text

Calibri 11 point, 1.15 line spacing, left aligned, 12 point space after each paragraph. Do not indent paragraphs.

Text emphases

Avoid using bold or underline. You may use italics where appropriate.


 > The first word of a sentence;
 > The first word after a colon (if there is a complete sentence after the colon);
 > The name of sections of the manuscript;
 > Departments in a university if used as a proper name;
 > Trade and brand names of drugs, equipment, food.

Do not capitalise nouns that:

 > Describe common elements of books and tables (e.g., chapter, section, column, row);
 > Precede a variable;
 > Are names of effects, conditions or variables in a study;
 > Name laws, theories, models, statistical procedures, or hypotheses;
 > Make up an abbreviation.

Quotation marks and quotations

APA style favours double quotation marks over single quotation marks, which tend to be used only for quotes within quotes. This is contrary to some Australian and British styles.

Use double quotation marks to:

 > Introduce a word or phrase used as an ironic comment, as slang, or as an invented or coined expression (but only the first time the word or phrase is used)
 Set off the title of an article or chapter in a periodical or book when the title is mentioned in the text
 Reproduce material from test items or verbatim instructions.

Do not use double quotation marks to:

 > Identify anchors of a scale (use italics)
 > Cite a letter, word, phrase, or sentence as a linguistic example (use italics)
 > Introduce a technical or key term (use italics)
 > Hedge (no punctuation).

Short quotations should be given with quotation marks in your running text, while longer quotations of more than 40 words should be formatted as quotations.

For longer quotations (more than 40 words) use Calibri 11 point, left aligned, indented 1 cm left and right, not italicised, without quotation marks. Referencing for the quotation may be given in the running text immediately before the quotation, or may be appended to the end of the quotation, after the final punctuation mark. (Author, YYYY, p. x)

All punctuation marks should be included exactly as they are part of the quoted material.

Series and lists

In a paragraph enclose lowercase letters in parentheses to indicate a series if order is important, that is, (a) … (b) … (c) …

Elements with a series of sentences or paragraphs can be offset. Use bullets or numbers as appropriate.

 > Use the standard Microsoft Word indent from the margin, that is, 63 mm.

 > Type the sentence or paragraph after the Arabic number, if order is important, or alternatively use bullet points, such as this example.

If the element continues over more than one line, the standard Microsoft Word hanging indent should produce the correct result.


Use abbreviations sparingly and consider whether the space saved justifies the time necessary for the reader to master the meaning of the abbreviation.

Write out the term to be abbreviated completely on its first appearance. Follow this with its abbreviation in parentheses. Thereafter use the abbreviation. For example, “reaction time (RT) is a factor in this test”.

Do not capitalise words in anticipation of the abbreviation unless the words would normally be capitalised.

The APA style manual lists many other forms of abbreviation, including Latin, scientific terminology, and those used for statistical analysis. Please consult the manual for more details.


Avoid using footnotes.

References: In text citations

Use the author-date system in your running text (i.e., current APA style).

Insert the sequence (Name, year) into the main text for a citation to a reference. Name refers to the family name of the author and year refers to the year of publication. To cite two authors delimit the individual authors by the symbol &. The phrase et al. is valid for three or more authors (including the first citation). The year is written in long form (e.g., 1999) and may have running lower case letters appended if you refer to more than one same year article by an author (e.g., Jones, 1999a, 1999b). Where more than one reference is used, list references in alphabetical order and separate each reference with a semicolon (e.g., Jones, 1999a; White & Beckett, 1997). Where a quote from the source document is included in the text, please refer to the page number, as in Jones (1999a, p. 125). Where there are two separate authors with the same family name, include their initials in citations (e.g. G. Smith, 2005; L. Smith, 1999).


... this special form (Black & Lines, 1998b) is very ...

... as described by Black and Lines (1998a) ...

... and this argument (Keystone et al., 2000c) is used ...

... across time and space (Jones, 1999a; White & Beckett, 1997).

... Davis et al. (1989) describe ...

... determined by beliefs (Davis et al., 1989) …

… as argued by G. Smith (2005) …

… made the case (L. Smith, 1999).

Please make minimal use of URL citations in your running text. Cite an author or organisational name and year (or if there is no year then use n.d.), and then include the appropriate details in the references.

References: Reference list

In your reference list (first level heading, References) please use the style recommended in the current edition of the APA style manual. This prescribes alphabetical order by first author. Titles of items should be in sentence case. Use Calibri 11 point, left aligned, hanging indent 1 cm, 6 point space after each reference, 1.15 line spacing.


According to the most recent APA style manual, you are required to include the digital object identifier (DOI) in the references. You are expected to include these whenever they are available. The DOI is normally listed on the first page of an article.

Some publications do not have the DOI listed on the PDF or print version. In this case you should search for the DOI using CrossRef. The free DOI lookup searches for DOIs using information such as article title, authors, and publisher information. If no DOI is returned from your CrossRef search, you need to check the journal site to confirm there is no DOI available.

If there is no DOI available for the publication, please check the journal site for confirmation. Please do not make up or try to generate your own DOIs. This will result in your article not being published or being removed from publication.

The following provides examples of referencing for the main kinds of publications. More examples can be found on the APA site ( An example research paper may also be viewed at


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (yyyy). Title of article in sentence-style capitalisation. Title of Journal in Italics and Heading-style Capitalisation, vol(issue), pp-pp. doi URL

Bannan-Ritland, B. (2003). The role of design in research: The integrative learning design framework. Educational Researcher, 32, 21-24.

Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70.

Wilson, G., & Stacey, E. (2004). Online interaction impacts on learning: Teaching the teachers to teach online. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 20(1), 33-48.


Unlike APA style, Kairaranga requires the issue numbers to be included for all journals, regardless of page numbering.

Where there is no DOI, refer to the URL of the journal article (not just the URL of the journal home page, as in APA style), but do not include both.


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (yyyy). Title of book in italics and sentence-style capitalization. Publisher.

Schunk, D. H. (2004). Learning theories: An educational perspective(4th ed.). Prentice-Hall.

Note: APA 7 does not require place of publication.

Chapters in books

Author, A. A. (yyyy). Title of chapter in sentence-style capitalisation. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book in italics and sentence-style capitalisation (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx-xxx). Publisher.

Mayer, R. E. (2005). Cognitive theory of multimedia learning. In R. E. Mayer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning(pp. 31-48). Cambridge University Press.

Note: APA 7 does not require place of publication.

Conference paper

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (yyyy, Month). Title of paper in italics and sentence-style capitalisation. Paper presented at the Name of the Conference, Location.


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (yyyy). Title of article in sentence-style capitalisation. Proceedings of the Name of Meeting (pp. xx-xx). URL or doi

Note: Proceedings published in book form should be referenced as for chapters in books.

Doctoral or master’s thesis

Author, A. A. (yyyy). Title of thesis in italics and sentence-style capitalisation [Unpublished doctoral/master’s thesis]. Name of Institution.

Websites and online resources

If you refer to an entire website you do not need to include an entry in the reference list. Identify the title of the source and provide the URL in parentheses e.g., … the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education ( provides …


Australasian Journal of Educational Technology. (2008). References for editorial, production and business management purposes. http://www.xxxxxxx.html

First in-text citation (Australasian Journal of Educational Technology [AJET], 2008)

Subsequent citations (AJET, 2008)


Downes, S. (2007, February 3). What connectivism is [Blog post]. Half an hour.


Title of article. (Year, Month Date). In Wikipedia.

More examples can be found at the APA (


Tables should be included in the text body near the first reference to it (not at the end of the paper).

Number all tables with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Do not add suffix letters to the numbers of the table.

The title should be brief but explanatory. Use Calibri 11 point italics for the caption.

Each column should have a title, which should be brief, clear and explanatory (plain text). All abbreviations in the table should be explained.

Figures and diagrams

Figures should be included in the text body near the first reference to it (not at the end of the paper).

Number all figures with Arabic numerals in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Use Calibri 11 point italics and place this under the figure. Do not add suffix letters to the numbers of the figure.

If necessary, include a legend to explain the symbols used in the figure, placed within the figure. Add a caption under the figure, following the figure number in plain text and sentence-style capitalisation. This serves as an explanation and a figure title. After the descriptive phrase add information that may be needed to clarify the figure.

Note: Ensure high-definition images are used for publication purposes if your article is accepted by Kairaranga.


This is an optional section in which you may record appreciation to individuals or organisations for assisting or supporting the research work. Format as for body text.


Avoid using appendices unless absolutely essential to the communication of the paper.

Author contact details

Do not include author contact details on submitted manuscripts. This information is captured by the journal management system when you submit your paper.

Author biography

In a separate Word document, include a brief biography for the author/s (no more than 100 words per author). Please include an author photograph, dimensions 2.5cm wide, variable width (so that the image proportions remain the same as the original).